By Declan Cahill
Earlier this year I wrote a blog post on the wonders of lime which outlined a period on the Scholarship where we were beginning to understand the historic use of lime. Since writing that post, we have travelled across most of the UK and met a wide range of people who are involved in the repair and conservation of historic buildings. On saying our thanks and goodbyes, a common question was repeated: “Are you attending the Building Limes Forum in September?” As the conference has now become a well-integrated part of the Fellows’ and Scholars’ programme we were pleased to hear that we would get the chance to catch up with so many people we have met along the way.
The Building Limes Forum (BLF) is held annually in September and brings together a variety of people from across the UK and further afield for a three day conference on the use of lime in it’s different variations. The conference was held in Liverpool this year and included a programme of presentations, demonstrations and site visits, as well as the annual general meeting of the BLF. I was particularly interested in two topics that were discussed throughout the presentations and demonstrations: hot lime and how our use of naturally hydraulic limes needs to be questioned.
The conference was opened by Stafford Holmes, who presented a talk on “The Delight of Diversity”, giving everyone a reminder of the different geological limestone strata across the UK, and how both earth and lime have played an integral part in the construction of our historic buildings. The first talk on hot lime was given by Roger Curtis, technical research manager at Historic Environment Scotland (HES). He gave an insight into the research being lead by HES into hot lime mortars. I think it is important here to include Roger’s definition of hot lime in their research, that is “quicklime, being mixed on site with aggregates, often gauged. Using a traditional additive (or pozzolan) where necessary, using the material warm, cool or mature and for building, pointing or harling purposes.” Roger gave an overview of the past and current research being undertaken and the four studies that are due to be published in Spring 2017, these being:
Historic Examples of Hot Lime – Tom Addyman
Recent Examples – Craig Frew and Bill Revie
Historic text Extraction – Nigel Copsey
Consideration in the specification of Hot Mixed Mortars – Ros Artis
There is also going to be a database set up for the analysis of lime mortars. This was fully introduced by Anne Schmidt later in the conference. Roger also highlighted that there will be a hot mixed lime mortars seminar in December 2016
Roger’s talk lead nicely into a presentation by Nigel Copsey on his research of old texts on lime mortars. His research has highlighted how earth and lime have historically been used in tandem with one another, and how historically mortars would be mixed hot, most commonly using the common or ordinary method of mixing. Roger’s analysis has covered the continent and has included texts from France and Spain that had never previously been translated.
On the Saturday, the conference covered current research into hot lime by Alison Henry of Historic England and the development of mixes for exposed historic buildings by Lucie Fusade at the University of Bath. Cristiano Figueiredo, also of the University of Bath, presented his analysis on how fit for purpose BS – 459-1:2015 is in a conservation context. Sarah Scammel, another speaker from University of Bath, presented her research into the impact of calcite aggregates on the properties of air lime mortars. All of the talks were deeply insightful but have pointed towards how we are under-using quicklime and overusing natural hydraulic limes without really understanding their strengths and properties, and what boundaries the British Standard gives. This research will hopefully further our understanding of lime mortars in their different states and how they act with historic building fabric.
Sunday morning of the conference gave an overview of the various activities of building limes forums around the globe, as well as introducing next years location for the conference, Trondheim Cathedral, Norway between 7-10 September 2017.
The presentations of the conference were closed by David Wiggins, a structural engineer who has researched into lime mortar and sacrificial weathering. David covered the primary decay drivers of lime mortar, frost attack and salt crystallisation, and how the pointing mortar is a functioning aspect of solid masonry construction, actively removing moisture and salts from the wall. Crucial to the pointing mortar’s function is the free lime content that makes the mortars sacrificial. This is something that natural hydraulic limes do not have but a hot mix produces a mortar with a high free lime content.
The conference was a great weekend to learn about the current research and practise that is ongoing and being applied in the effort to repair and conserve our historic buildings. On behalf of the Scholars and Fellows, I would like to thank the Rathbone Foundation for funding the bursary that allowed us to attend the conference and hope that they will continue to support the Scholarship and Fellowship programmes in the future.